Highlights:Gulls use exchangers to save energy with warm cores and cold feet. Fish gills operate analogously
Abstract:Heat and gas exchangers are simple and elegant solutions to the challenges of thermoregulation and transport in animals. The principles involved are heat conduction for thermoregulation and diffusion for transport. Because the mathematical models are the same for both mechanisms, animals can use the same structural solution to solve both problems. This comes at the end of our section on "Moving Molecules" which focuses on heat transfer and diffusion.
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